Brașov, the seat of Brașov County, is located in the central part of Romania, 166 kilometres north of the capital city, Bucharest. It lies at an altitude of about 600 metres above sea level, nestled within the Southern Carpathian Mountains. The town itself stretches for approximately 123 square kilometres.

Situated at the foot of Mount Tâmpa, a mountain with an altitude of 967 metres, the city of Brașov is a popular tourist destination in Romania.

The region surrounding Brașov is characterised by diverse geographical features, including the Southern Carpathians, the Bucegi massif, and the Intorsura Buzăului mountains. It is also home to two national parks, Piatra Craiului and Bucegi, along with 30 protected areas, including the Tâmpa mountain.

  • Population

    The National Institute of Statistics (INS) - County Directorate of Statistics Brașov reveals that in 2022 the city of Brașov boasted a population of 284,691, while the County attained a population of 639,825, with the urban area housing 455,087 inhabitants and the rural area with 184,738 inhabitants. The average age of the population is 37.4 years. Remarkably, this population is nearly evenly distributed by gender, with males constituting 48% and females 52%, according to data collected from the same statistic.

    The land use distribution is 52% agricultural and 48% non-agricultural, from which 38% is represented by forests. In Brașov County, the machine-building industry, the metal processing industry, the pharmaceutical, food, and wood processing industry, and the field of construction, transport, and services have significantly developed. Brașov also has a long tradition in tourism, being the most popular winter sports destination in Romania. In the first seven months of 2023, Brașov County ranked second, at the national level, in terms of tourist arrivals accounting for 11.1% of the total.

    Early leavers from education and training (age 18-24) in Romania represent 15.3% out of the total country population, a higher percentage compared to the EU average (10.2%).

    Unemployment statistics for 2023, as reported by INS, indicate an overall unemployment rate of 2.5% in Brașov County. This represents an increase of 0.5% point compared to 2022. The average number of state social security pensioners is 146,663 in 2023.

    Furthermore, Brașov County shows the 9th position in the national average net nominal wage rankings. The nominal average gross salary at the level of Brașov County was recorded at 6,818 lei in June 2023. This marked an increase of 852 lei (+14.3%) compared to the same month in the previous year.

    94% of Brașov inhabitants are content with their life there, according to a recent study; it is one of the highest percentages in Romania, largely due to its low pollution level, good infrastructure, and access to health services. Brasov is one of the best cities in Romania for families and for raising kids, due to its good quality of public education options, public safety, clean air, as well as the cultural life and the sports options in the city.


Relevant environmental risk factors that the municipality is exposed to, are ultraviolet rays and polluting particles in the air. Moreover, other risk factors can be found in other abiotic factors such as drinking water quality, temperature, and noise pollution.

  • What is ultraviolet radiation?

    UV radiation indicates the intensity of the sun on the Earth's surface. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), small doses of UV radiation are necessary for human beings since they allow us to produce vitamin D, one of the main substances that strengthen our bones. However, excessive exposure is directly related to harmful effects on our health.

    Knowing the difference between UVA and UVB rays is vital. UVB causes immediate harm like burns, while UVA leads to long-term issues like premature ageing and a higher risk of skin cancer.

    In addition, the WHO confirms that the chronic effects of UV radiation not only depend on the doses of radiation but also on the individual sensibility, making it determinant in some cases, especially in those who are vulnerable to ultraviolet radiation.

    UV index

    The intensity of UV radiation is measured as the solar UV index or solar index. The solar index is related to a daily maximum, a value that will indicate the higher or lower risk of harm from the sun, depending on our location and the moment in time during which we are exposed. This UV index varies throughout the day being at its peak at midday.

    The values of the UV index established by WHO are classified as low, moderate, high, very high, and extreme exposure:

    Exposure category
    UV values

    The climate in Braşov, Romania, has certain unique features, thus it is important to be informed of any possible health risks associated with the local weather. Brasov's geographic location causes variations in the UV index, which could have an impact on locals and visitors. Throughout the year, there might be variations in the UV index; this is particularly important in the summer. The UV index in Braşov varies with the season, from High most of the year to Moderate in the winter months. Sometimes the UV index may reach Extreme levels, especially in the hottest summer months. It is important to remember that the amount of UV radiation might vary depending on the surrounding conditions, such as cloud cover.

    Health Risk Factors

    UV rays can trigger the development of non-communicable diseases, in particular skin cancer and melanoma. Numerous investigations made by organizations such as the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (EAVD) and the WHO highlight the relationship between UV rays’ exposure and the risk of suffering from these diseases.

    According to WHO, ultraviolet radiation causes 1.5 million cases of skin cancer every year across the world, and this trend has been rising in various European countries in recent years. Skin melanoma accounted for 4% of all new cancer diagnoses in EU-27 countries in 2020 (all cancers, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers) and for 1.3% of all deaths due to cancer.

    In recent years, the European Commission has played a relevant role in actively promoting campaigns for solar security that encourage the use of sunscreens with an appropriate sun protection factor (SPF), the use of protective clothes and looking for shade during peak hours and emphasizing the importance of periodic cutaneous revisions. By knowing the implications of UV rays’ exposure and adopting preventive strategies, people can protect their skin and reduce the risk of non-communicable diseases in Europe.

    There are various categories to classify skin types in relation to their reaction to ultraviolet radiation. One of the most prevalent classifications was made by Dr. Fitzpatrick from Harvard Medical School in 1975. This classification - commonly called the Fitzpatrick scale - is based on different physical characteristics like sun sensibility, skin tone, hair, and eye colour. The system entails a scale of six different skin types (or phototypes), each of those can be linked to specific ethnic groups.

    Skin types
    Skin types
    Skin types
    White skin, alabasters with lots of freckles and blond.
    Always gets burnt easily and the burns can be intense. Never gets a tan.
    White skin, blue eyes.
    Always gets burnt easily, and the burn can be intense. Can get slightly tan.
    White skin with a slightly brown tone. Caucasian.
    Can get burnt, the burn would be moderate. Can get gradually tan.
    Brown skin is more or less intense. Mediterranean.
    Can get burnt but it would be minimal. Always gets tan.
    Intense brown skin. Asians, People of colour with a less intense skin colour, Middle East and South America.
    Rarely gets burnt. Gets easily tan.
    Intense black skin.
    Never gets burnt. Gets tan more easily.

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  • In this section, we present information about additional environmental factors such as water for consumption, temperatures and noise pollution. This information is relevant because of its impact on our well-being.

    Water quality is essential to prevent the spread of diseases through water and guarantee safe hydration for people. Temperature directly influences our comfort and health since prolonged exposure to extreme temperatures can lead to heat stroke, hypothermia, or worsen existing medical conditions. Noise pollution tends to be a dominant factor in urban environments like Brașov city centre.

    Water for consumption

    Rational use of water resources is a major objective of the environmental strategy in Romania for 2015-2030. In Romania's water resources are relatively scarce, with only approximately 1,700 m3 of water/year/inhabitant, while in other European countries these reserves are on average 2.5 times higher.

    water consumption

    Tap water in the city of Brașov is drinkable and fit for consumption.

    The municipality has recently made investments for the rehabilitation of the water supply system. Approximately 22 km of water supply infrastructure were rehabilitated, and around 24.5 km of water distribution network/artery were expanded and rehabilitated. In addition, springs, wells, and 50 urban fountains were rehabilitated, providing additional water sources for the community.

    In terms of wastewater management, a centralised sewage system connected to 97.99% of its population is in place. The wastewater collecting system comprises 735 km of sewage pipes and operates 26 wastewater pumping stations and other necessary infrastructure. The centralised system helps protect the environment and public health by collecting and treating both domestic and industrial wastewater.


    The region is located at the junction of three large natural units: the Eastern Carpathians and the Southern Carpathians, some places exceeding 2000 m, and the Transylvanian Plateau. The average altitude of Brașov municipality is 625 m. The climate is temperate with an 8.8 °C multi annual average temperature, and annual precipitation is around 654 mm.

    However, recently, the area has been registering drastic changes in the temperatures. This is primarily due to global warming, which, according to WHO, has become a worldwide health threat of the 21st century. Brașov's warmest period falls in July and August, when the average high temperatures normally ascend to 21°C. Nevertheless, in summer 2023 the heat wave hit Brașov, as many other cities of Europe, with extremely hot weather and average temperature above 30℃.

    One significant consequence of high temperatures is their potential to worsen pre-existing health conditions, particularly impacting vascular and respiratory issues.

    How are these pathologies affected by the temperature?


    If you don’t have respiratory problems, you should take into consideration that heat can raise the need for oxygen in your cells. However, if you already suffer from respiratory diseases, such as pulmonary problems, it can be a challenge. Heat can make you breathe faster and sweat a lot, which means dehydration since you will lose liquids. This can cause discomfort, but also it can thicken the mucus in your airways, and this would make it more difficult for you to breathe normally.

    In case of suffering from cardiac problems, heat and dehydration may be concerning. Dehydration can make your blood thicker and viscous, which raises the risk of forming blood clots. This also increases the possibility of suffering a brain haemorrhage or a heart attack. Moreover, an additional effort that your heart should make to pump blood during heat conditions, especially if you have arterial problems, can explain why during a heat wave it is common to experience chest pain or, even, a heart attack.

    Finally, during the summer period, it is important to consider that as a consequence of high temperatures the risk of diseases transmitted by water and food may also rise. This means that we should be cautious with what we eat and drink to avoid stomach infections, such as gastroenteritis or food poisoning.

    Noise pollution

    noise pollution

    Noise pollution is generated by the excessive and undesirable noise levels present in the city, caused by various sources such as road traffic, industrial activities, construction, and other urban factors. These elevated noise levels can disrupt the tranquillity and quality of life for residents and visitors in Brașov, impacting their well-being, concentration, sleep, and overall enjoyment of the city's environment.

    A study regarding the simulation of urban traffic noise in Braşov city has created a noise map of the city centre to raise awareness about the high affection by the traffic noise. The study calls for the local authorities to take measures to reduce such noise, and this way protects the exposed population in this area.

    noise pollution 2
    noise pollution 3

    Noise map of the city centre at day (left) and at night (right). Source.

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